The hemp russet mite is a member of the Eriophyoid mite family, and has emerged as a devastating pest in cannabis cultivation. The eriophyoids mite are unique among the acari: they have worm-like bodies (known as fusiform) and larvae and adults have 4 legs, not 8 like other mites. Eriophyoid mites are also microscopic; too small to be seen with the naked eye.
Little is known about many members of the eriophyoid mite family, and the hemp russet mite is no exception. This mite was first identified and described on hemp in Hungary by HK Farkas, in 1960. Further morphological elaboration of hemp russet mites discovered in Serbia was provided by Petanović et al, in 2007. Nothing else has been published.
At the time of this writing, no applied research has been performed on the hemp russet mite. We do not know the specifics of its life cycle, optimum environmental conditions, how they overwinter, if its host range extends beyond cannabis, etc.. Furthermore, we feel borrowing critical details of the hemp russet mites cousin from its cousin, the tomato russet mite (Aculops lycopersici) is inappropriate. There are over 200 species in the genus Aculops; the fact that these mites share the same genus proves only that they look similar.
We can, however, gain a rather accurate portrait of this pest by comparing years of observations in the field with what we know to be true about other eriophyoid pests.
What to look for:
Russet mites cause leaf yellowing (russeting), leaf margin curling, brown pistils, ‘sawdust’ on stems
Russet Mite Life cycle
The life history of the hemp russet mite remains unknown at this time.
- The hemp russet mite feeds on the epidermal cells of leaves, not the vascular system. - With only 4 legs, hemp russet mites do not travel very efficiently, on their own. - Transported on clothing or with the help of the wind, they spread easily and infest nearby plant material rapidly. - For mites that are blown onto the plant by the wind, it may seem as it the infestation started in the middle of the plant. In fact, the mites arrive weeks prior, slowly building up numbers as the plants grow larger. - They have a strong vertical migration habit, slowly working their way up the plant. - Once at the top, the russet mites form ‘chains’ on top of one another, seeking to be blown in the wind. - When observing an infestation, it is important to understand that the russet mite population typically extends beyond the areas where damage is visible. There is normally a large number of mites in the areas directly above the visible damage. - Similar to the tomato russet mite, the hemp russet mite will seek shelter from predators behind glandular trichomes. - Moisture stress may exacerbate the damage caused by the hemp russet mite.
I see russet mites, now what?
By the time symptoms are visible, russet mite populations may be in the thousands, or more; early detection is critical. Magnification is required to see these mites; 90x is sufficient. A stereo microscope, or high-quality USB digital microscope, should be used for best results. Russet mites may start low on the plant, or may already be on the upper leaves; a wide variety of samples from different parts of the plant may be necessary. To reiterate: it is vitally important to detect the presence of russet mites as early as possible, which is why regular and meticulous scouting is crucial in using biocontrols successfully to defend against these pests. Once identified, there are a number of species of predatory mites that have been documented to feed on them, including Andersoni, Swirskii, Californicus, and Cucumeris. However, to combat active infestations, it is best to use the liter containers of active adults and apply them in successive weeks until the issue is under control.
I don't see any russet mites, but I'd like to prevent problems...
For preventative treatments, introducing predatory mites in sachets has resulted in the best outcomes. The sachets can be used from the beginning of the veg cycle, all the way through the midway point of the flower cycle, when the forming trichomes tend to deter and inhibit the mobility of the predatory mites. The sachets are designed to slowly release the predators, as they reproduce inside the sachet, over the course of 3-5 weeks, depending on the environmental conditions of your facility or farm.
Amblyseius andersoni feeds on russet mites, broad mites and two spot spider mites. They will also feed on pollen and thrips larvae, allowing the population to survive when pest mite populations decrease. Active and effective in both high and low temperatures (43˚-104˚F), andersoni is an easy choice for preventative mite control in your commercial garden.
Amblyseius swirskii is primarily known as a thrips predator and is ideal for warmer climates, as it is native to the Mediterranean. It feeds not only on thrips, but also broad mites and russet mites, as well as whitefly eggs. Optimal results are seen when adults in 1 liter containers are used in conjunction with slow-release sachets. Feedback from growers for broad mite control has been very positive.
Amblyseius californicus is a generalist predatory mite that primarily attacks spider mites, but will also feed on many other leaf inhabiting mites (even some microscopic species, like broad mites), other small insects and pollen.
Californicus is tolerant of various temperatures and lower humidity, but works best under warm to hot conditions.
Amblyseius cucumeris feeds on the larvae of several species of thrips, including the common variety: Western Flower thrips. It will also feed on broad mites, cyclamen mites, and, to a lesser extent, two spot spider mites.
Their relatively low cost makes them an attractive option against thrips in operations when temperatures are below 85˚F.